Chambal River - Origin Tributaries Dams Flora | Fauna

Chambal River

The Chambal is the river which forms the biggest part of the Gangetic drainage system. The Chambal is one of the tributaries of the Yamuna River in the northern and the central part of India. The Chambal River originates in the Bhadakla Falls in Janapav Hills of the Madhya Pradesh state. And then flows in Rajasthan and then forms a boundary in between Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh and then turns southeast to join with the Yamuna in the state of Uttar Pradesh.

It has a lot of descriptions in the ancient scriptures. Originating from the Janapav Hills the Chambal and its tributaries drain Malwa area of north-western Madhya Pradesh, while one of its tributaries names the Banas, which originates in the Aravalli Range, drains in the south-eastern Rajasthan. Making the confluence of five rivers the Chambal, the Kwari, the Yamuna, the Sind, the pahuj, finally ends at Pachnada near Bhareh in the state of Uttar Pradesh, at the border of Bhind and Etowah districts.

The Chambal River is also famous for its pollution free nature, and also it hosts a diverse riverine faunal including the 2 known species of crocodiles – the mugger and the gharial, 8 species of river turtles, river dolphins, black-bellied terns, smooth-coated otters, skimmers, black-necked storks, sarus cranes and many more. It is in believe that the ancient name of the Chambal River was ‘Charmanwati’ (spelled as the Charmanwati) it is also mentioned in the Mahabharat by the name Charmanwati which means river on whose bank leather is dried and made. It is said that first it was named as the river Charman and later was named as River Charmanwati.

Chambal River

Tributaries of Chambal River

  1. Shipra
  2. Choti Kalisindh
  3. Sivanna
  4. Retam
  5. Ansar
  6. Kalisindh
  7. Banas
  8. Parbati
  9. Seep
  10. Kuwari
  11. Kuno
  12. Alnia
  13. Mej
  14. Chakan
  15. Parwati
  16. Chamla
  17. Gambhir
  18. Lakhunder
  19. Khan
  20. Bangeri
  21. Kedel
  22. Teelar.

The Chambal is the most signiificant river of the Malwa precise terrain. The river basin is a portion of the dikes, floodplain, and gorges. In Rajasthan, the Hadauti area emerges in the upper drainage basin of the Chambal River to the southeast of the Mewar vale. The stream receptacle emerges in the Malwa terrain to the east. Geographically, it can be distributed into the Deccan Lava( Malwa) terrain and Vindhyan scar area. As stated by Heron in 1953, the pediplain in the east, arising amid the Vindhyan terrain and the Aravalli mount range, holds a thin lean layer of quaternary reserves, altered top soil and stream canal stuff. In any case, two worn down layers can be correlated in the pedi plain region from the Tertiary period. The Vindhyan plateau, the neighboring Chambal basin, and the Indo- Gangetic alluvial territory( aged alluvium) are of Pleistocene toSub-recent period. Badland geography is a representative attribute of the Chambal basin, on the other side, kankar has fully constructed up in the ancient alluvial deposit.

Origin of Chambal River

Origin of Chambal River
By Uwe Dedering - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

Flow Of Chambal River

The 1,024 kilometres( 636 mi) lengthy Chambal River originates from the Bhadakla Falls in
Janapav Hills on the northern slopes of the Vindhyan escarpment near Mandav 67.5
kilometres(41.9 mi) South- West of Mhow in Indore District, Madhya Pradesh land, at an
rise of around 843 metres(2,766 ft). The river flows first in a northerly directive
through Madhya Pradesh(M.P.) for around 376 kilometres( 234 mi) and then in a usually
north- easterly direction for 249 kilometres( 155 mi) through Rajasthan. The Chambal
flows for another 216 kilometres( 134 mi) between M.P. and Rajasthan and a farther 150
kilometres( 93 mi) between M.P. and Uttar Pradesh(U.P.). It enters U.P. and flows for
about 33 kilometres( 21 mi) before adjoining the Yamuna River in Jalaun District at an
rise of 123 metres( 404 ft), to form a portion of the greater Gangetic drainage network.

From its origin down to its junction with the Yamuna, the Chambal has a stumble of around 747.25 metres(2,451.6 ft). Of this, around 305 metres(1,001 ft) is within the initial 26 kilometres( 16 mi) reach from its origin. It falls for another 195 metres( 640 ft) in the coming 312 kilometres( 194 mi), where it enters the couloir past the Chaurasigarh Fort. During the next 157 kilometres( 98 mi) of its run from the Chaurasigarh Fort to Kota town, the bed falls by another 91 metres( 299 ft). For the rest of its 529 kilometres( 329 mi) run, the stream passes through the flat terrain of the Malwa Plateau and after that the Gangetic Plain with an average incline of0.21 m/ km.

Chambal river near Rajasthan Kota
By Jangidno2 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

The Chambal is a rainfed catchment with a complete drained region up to its conjunction with the Yamuna of 144,591 square kilometres(55,827 sq mi). The drainage area resembles a rectangle up to the connection of the Parvathi and Banas Rivers with the Chambal streaming along its major axis. The Chambal Basin lies between latitudes 22 ° 27' N and 27 ° 20' N and longitudes 73 ° 20' E and 79 ° 15'E. On its south, east and west, the river basin is bounded by the Vindhyan mount ranges and on the north- west by the Aravallis. Beneath the confluence of the Parvathi and Banas, the catchment becomes thin and stretched. In this reach, it is bounded by the Aravalli mount ranges on the North and the Vindhyan hill range on the south.

The Vindhyan scarps, in the northwest, adjoin the left bank of the Chambal, and latterly, is principally drained by it. The Chambal rolling out within around 16 km of the Narmada river, appears as a analytic on the Mesozoic surface, superimposed on the scarps, and cuttings right through them, with subsequent branches on the gentle shales. The River Chambal and its branches Kali Sindh and Parbati have formed a triangular alluvial river basin, around 200 – 270 metres( 660 – 890 ft) above the thin trough of the lower Chambal in Kota. It's a typical anterior- drainage pattern stream, being much aged than the river Yamuna and Ganges, into which it ultimately flows.

The branches of the Chambal contain Shipra, Choti Kalisindh, Sivanna, Retam, Ansar, Kalisindh, Banas, Parbati, Seep, Kuwari, Kuno, Alnia, Mej, Chakan, Parwati, Chamla, Gambhir, Lakhunder, Khan, Bangeri, Kedel and Teelar.

As said to Crawford( 1969), the Chambal river valley is piece of the Vindhyan network which consists of weighty sandstone, slate and limestone, of perhapspre-Cambrian age, reposing on the surface of older gems. Hillocks and plateaus define the major landforms of the Chambal valley. The Chambal river basin is characterised by an undulating floodplain, gullies and defiles. The Hadauti plateau in Rajasthan occurs in the upper catchment of the Chambal River to the southeast of the Mewar Plains. It occurs with the Malwa plateau in the east. Physiographically, it can be parted into Vindhyan scarp land and Deccan Lava ( Malwa) plateau. According to Heron( 1953), the eastern pediplain, being between the Vindhyan plateau and the Aravalli mount range, contains a spare veneer of Quaternary sediments, revised soil and river channel fills. At least two erosional surfaces can be recognised within the pediplain are the Tertiary era. The Vindhyan upland, the touching Chambal valley and the Indo- Gangetic alluvial tract( aged alluvium) are of Pleistocene to Sub-recent age. Badland topography is a characteristic fingerprint of the Chambal valley, whereas kankar has extensively elaborated in the aged alluvium.

Flora and Fauna

The region lies within the semi-arid part of north- western India at the borderline of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh States, and the foliage consists of ravine, thorn forestland, a sub-type of the Northern Tropical forestlands(Sub-group 6B/ C2 of the modified classification of Champion & Seth, 1968). This sub-type generally occurs in lesser arid zones with 600 – 700 mm rain. Some examples of Saline/ Alkaline Babul Savannah( 5E/ 8b), a kind of Northern Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest, likewise occurs. Evergreen riparian foliage is thoroughly missing, with just sparse ground- cover along the stiffly eroded river banks and conterminous ravine lands.

The semiarid belt in Madhya Pradesh is defined by Chambal catchment elongating up to Narmda and Betla Rivers. Over 1000 flowering plants have been reported containing Anogeissus latifoia,A. pendula, Tectona grandis, Lannea coromandelica, Diospyros melanoxylon, Sterculia urens, Mitragyna parviflora, Butea monosperma, Emblica officinalls, Boswellia serrata, Bridelia squamosa and Hardwickia binata. Species composition at shrub and ground layer is alike to that of semiarid areas of Gujarat. A countable climbers of this region include species of Rhynchosia, Atylosia, Cocculus, Cissampelos, Ipomoea, Pergularia daemia, Pueraria tuberosa and Tinospora cordifolia.

Chambal River
By Koshy Koshy from Faridabad, Haryana, India - Lesser Whistling DuckUploaded by jkadavoor, CC BY 2.0,

Scratchy bushes or small trees generally set up in this area include Capparis deciduas, Capparis sepiaria, Balanites aegyptiaca, Acacia senegal,A. nilotica,A. leucophloea, Prosopis juliflora, Butea monosperma, Maytenus emarginata, Tamarixsp., Salvadora persica,S. oleoides, Crotalaria medicaginea,C. burhia, Clerodendrum phlomidis, Calotropis procera, Xanthium indicum and Leptadenia pyrotechnica associated with climbers similar as Maerua oblongifolia, Pergularia daemia, Ceropegia bulbosa, herbseg, Argemone mexicana, Farsetia hamiltonii, Tephrosia purpurea, Cleome viscosa, Tribulus terrestris, Glinus lotoides, Sericostoma pauciflorum, Riveasp, Ipomoeasp, Pedalium murex, Sesamum mulayanum, Lepidagathis sp, Boerhavia diffusa Chrozophorasp, and pasturelands like Cyprussp, Fimbristylissp, Brachiariasp, Cenchrussp, Dichanthiumsp, etc.

Dams on Chambal River

Gandhi Sagar Dam of Chambal River
By LRBurdak - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

In a expansion of 96 km, from km 344 to km 440 from its origin, the Chambal flows through a bottomless gorge, while lower down, there are broad plains. The Gandhisagar Dam is located near the center of this reach. As there's a bottomless gorge immediately upstream of the dam, the reservoir has a big storage capacity despite its comparatively lower peak. For the coming 48 km, the river flows through the Kundal Plateau, and the Rana Pratap Sagar Dam is made at the lower end of this. The topography permits pretty good storage upstream of the dam. Further below, the Jawahar Sagar Dam is located in the midpoint of the Kota gorge. The Kota Barrage is located near Kota city, where the river emerges from the gorge region into the plateau. The complete region draining the Kota Barrage is,319 km2.

The Chambal River is used for hydropower production at Gandhi Sagar dam, Rana Pratap Sagar dam and Jawahar Sagar Dam and for yearly irrigation of5668.01 square kilometres in the commands of the exact main canal and the left main canal of the Kota Barrage.

Major Dams on Chambal River

The Gandhi Sagar Dam

This is the aged of the four dams constructed on the Chambal River. The Gandhi Sagar Dam is positioned on the boundary line of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. The dam is a 64 meter high stonework gravity dam, with a existing storehouse facility of 6,920 Mm ³ and a drainage basin region of 22,584 km ², of which simply 1,537 km ² is situated in Rajasthan. structure of the dam was finished making in 1960. The hydroelectric power complex consists of five power generating partitions of 23 MW capacity each. The water blasted following electricity production is used for supplying to agricultural lands via Kota Barrage.

The Rana Pratap Sagar Dam

This dam is positioned 52 km downstream of Gandhi Sagar Dam over the Chambal River near to Rawatbhata in the district of Chittorgarh, Rajasthan. Construction of the dam was completed in 1970. The dam is the 2nd in the consequence of Chambal Valley Projects. The dam is 54 meters high. The origin of power is positioned on the left corner of the channel for water flood and is formed up of 4 partitions of 43 MW each, with steady power production of 90 MW at 60 load element. The overall drainage basin of this dam is,864 km ², of which exactly 956 km ² is located in Rajasthan. The live repository capacity of the dam is,566 Mm3. The open drainage basin beneath the Gandhi Sagar Dam covers an field of,280 km ².

The Jawahar Sagar Dam

This dam is the third dam in the lineage of Chambal Valley Projects, positioned 26 km downstream of Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and 29 km upstream of Kota town. It's a stonework gravity dam, which is 45 metre high with a reach of 393 m, producing 60 MW of hydroelectric power with an initiated capacity of 3 separators of 33 MW. The construction of the dam was completed in 1972. The overalll drainage catchment-area of the Jawahar Sagar Dam is,195 km ², of this exactly,496 km ² is in Rajasthan. The open drainage catchment-area beneath the Rana Pratap Sagar Dam covers an field of,331 km ².

The Kota Barrage

This barrage is the fourth in the sequence of Chambal Valley systems, positioned around0.8 km upstream of Kota City in Rajasthan. Water blasted following electricity generation at Rana Pratap Sagar dam, Gandhi Sagar dam, and Jawahar Sagar Dams, is rerouted by Kota Barrage for irrigation in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan and through inland aqueducts on the left and the right hands of the river. Construction of this dam was completed in 1960. The overall drainage catchment-area of Kota Barrage is,332 km ², of which the open drainage basin beneath the Jawahar Sagar Dam is exactly 137 km ². The live repository capacity of the dam is 99 Mm ³. The dam is an earth fill dam with a aqueduct for water overflow framed of concrete. The right and left major channels have a headworks discharge capacity of 188 m ³/ sec and 42 m ³/ sec independently. The overall span of the key aqueducts, distribution network, and divisions is around,342 km, accoutring 
 a region of,290 km ² of CCA. The dam runs 18 gates to curb surge of inundation and flume water downstream, and functions as a bridge amid fields of Kota town on the left and right sides of the river.

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