Godavari River - Tributaries Course Hydropower Stations

Godavari River

Godavari River

The Godavari is India's second-longest river after the Ganga and the third largest in India, drains about 10% of India's complete geographical region. Its origin is in Trimbakeshwar, Nashik, Maharashtra. It flows east for 1,465 km (910 miles), draining the lands of Maharashtra (48.6%), Telangana (18.8%), Andhra Pradesh (4.5%), Chhattisgarh (10.9%), and Odisha (5.7%). The river finally empties into the Bay of Bengal through a wide network of tributaries. scaling up to 312,812 sq km ( 120,777 sq mi), it forms one of the largest river basins in the Indian subcontinent, with only the Ganga and Indus rivers owning a larger drainage basin. In terms of distance, catchment region, and discharge, the Godavari is the largest in peninsular India and had been named the Dakshina Ganga (the Ganges of the South).

The river has been glorified in Hindu scriptures for numerous glories and continues to harbor and incubate a rich cultural heritage. In the past decades, the river has been barricaded by several barrages and dams, observing ahead of water ( deepness) that lowers evaporation. Its wide river delta houses 729 persons/ km2 closely twice the Indian average population density and has a substantial threat of flooding, which in lower parts would be exacerbated if the universal sea level were to uprise.

Godavari River map with States

Godavari River map with states

Course Of The Godavari River

The Godavari originates in the Western Ghats of mid-India near Nashik in Maharashtra, 80 km (50 mi) from the Arabian Sea. It flows for 1,465 km (910 mi), foremost eastwards across the Deccan Plateau then turns southeast, accessing the West Godavari district and East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, until it splits into two distributaries that widen into a grand river delta at Dowleswaram Barrage in Rajahmundry and roll into the Bay of Bengal.

The Godavari River has a content area of 312, 812 sq km ( 120,777 sq mi), which is closely one-tenth of the region of India and is equivalent to the area of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland put together. The river basin is accounted to be dissociated into 3 parts:

  1. Upper ( origin to the convergence with Manjira).
  2. Middle (between the convergence of Manjira and Pranhita).
  3. Lower (Pranhita convergence to mouth).

These put simultaneously account for 24.2% of the complete basin area. The river's yearly average water inflows are close to 110 billion cubic meters. closely 50 of the water availability is being harnessed. The water allotment from the river among the riparian states is commanded by the Godavari Water Disputes Tribunal. The river has the topmost flood flows in India and experienced a recorded flood of 3.6 million cusecs in the year 1986 and the yearly flood of1.0 million cusecs is common.

Godavari in Maharashtra

In Maharashtra state where it takes to source, the river has a broad course, the upper basin ( source to its convergence with Manjira) of which lies entirely within the state, cumulatively draining a region as large as km2 ( sq mi) – around half the region of Maharashtra. Within the Nashik district, the river assumes a north-easterly course till it flows into the Gangapur Reservoir created by a dam of the same title. The reservoir along with the Kashypi Dam provides drinkable water to Nashik, one of the largest cities located on its banks. The river as it emerges through the dam, some 8 km (5.0 mi) upstream from Nashik, flows on a rocky rack undulated by a series of chasms and rocky ledges, performing in the conformation of two significant falls – the Gangapur and the Someshwar waterfalls. The latter, located at Someshwar is more popularly comprehended as the Dudhsagar Waterfall. around 10 km (6.2 mi) east of Gangapur the river passes the city of Nashik where it collects its effluents in the form of the river Nasardi on its right bank.

Around 0.5 km (0.31 mi) south of Nashik, the river arches sharply to the east, splashing the base of a high cliff formerly the position of a Mughal fort, but which is currently being eroded down by the action of floods. around 25 km (16 mi) below Nashik is the convergence of the Godavari and one of its branches, the Darna. The stream occupies, for nine months in the year, a small place in a broad and gravelly bed, the greyish banks being 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft) tall, topped with a deep layer of black soil. Several kilometers after its gathering with the Darna, the Godavari swerves to the north-east, before the Banganga, from the north-west, meets it on the left. The procedure of the main river then tends further decidedly south. At Nandur-Madhmeshwar, the Kadva, a second large affluent, brings a major boost to the waters of the Godavari.

The river begins its southeasterly course characteristic of rivers of the Deccan Plateau. The river exits the Niphad Taluka of Nashik and enters the Kopargaon taluka, Ahmednagar District. Within Ahmednagar District the river rapidly completes its short course, rolling alongside the city of Kopargaon and handing over Puntamba. Beyond this, the river serves as a natural boundary line between the following districts.

  1. Ahmednagar and Aurangabad Along the boundary here, it receives its earliest significant branch the Pravara River, draining the former district. The convergence is located at Pravarasangam. By the grace of the sub-tributary of Pravara – Mandohol, which originates in Pune District – the basin impinges the Pune district. The stream at Paithan has been impounded by the Jayakwadi Dam forming the NathSagar Reservoir. Kalsubai located in the Godavari basin is the highest mountain in Maharashtra.
  2. Beed and Jalna 
  3. Beed and Parbhani Located along here's its junction with Sindphana, a substantial branch that drains a much large region within Beed. The sub-tributary stream Bindusara forms a landmark at Beed.
Trimbkeshwar Temple

The river beyond, near the village Sonpeth, flows into Parbhani. In Parbhani district, the stream flows through Gangakhed taluka. As adverted above, the Godavari is correspondingly called Dakshinganga so the city is known as Gangakhed ( denoting a village on the bank of Ganga). As per Hindu practices, this site is accounted quite significant for after-death peace to flow ashes into the river.

Its course is fairly-significant except for receiving two smaller branches – Indrayani and Masuli – merging at its left and right banks respectively. Within the final taluka of the district Parbhani, Purna, the river drains a sizable branch of the identical name Purna.

It additionally exits into the neighboring district of Nanded where 10 km (6.2 mi) before reaching the city Nanded, it's impounded by the Vishnupuri Dam and accordingly with it, bringing Asia's largest lift irrigation projects to life. A little downstream from Nanded, the river receives Asna, a small stream, on its left bank. It then runs into the argumentative Babli project soon ends its course within Maharashtra, albeit temporarily, at its junction with a sizable branch – Manjira.

The river after rolling into Telangana re-emerges to flow as a state boundary separating the Mancherial, Telangana from Gadchiroli, Maharashtra. At the state borderline, it runs between Sironcha and Somnoor Sangam entering one branch at each of those nodal points – the Pranhita and subsequently the Indravati.

Godavari in Telengana

The Godavari enters Telangana in the Nizamabad district at Kandakurthy where Manjira and Haridra rivers adjoin the Godavari and form Triveni Sangamam. The river flows along the borderline between Nirmal and Mancherial districts in the north and Nizamabad, Jagitial, and Peddapalli districts to its south. around 12 km (7.5 mi) after accessing Telangana it merges with the backwaters of the Sriram Sagar Dam. The river after arising through the dam doors, enjoys a broad river bunk, frequently splitting to encase sandy islands. The river receives a lesser but significant tributary Kadam stream. It then emerges at its eastern flank to act as a state borderline with Maharashtra alone to later access into Bhadradri Kothagudem district. In this district, the river flows through a significant Hindu pilgrimage city – Bhadrachalam.

The river further swells after receiving a smaller branch Kinnerasani River and exits into Andhra Pradesh.

Godavari in Andhra Pradesh

Within the land of Andhra Pradesh, it flows through the hilly area of the Eastern Ghats comprehended as the Papi hills which explain the narrowing of its bunk as it flows through a gorge for a limited km, only tore-widen at Polavaram. The deepest bed place of the Godavari River, located 36 km upstream of the Polavaram dam, is 45 m. below ocean level. Before passing the Papi hills, it receives its last biggish tributary Sabari River on its left bank. The river upon reaching the plains begins to widen out until it reaches Rajahmundry. Arma Konda ( 1,680 meters ( 5,510 feet)) is the uppermost peak in the Godavari river cartridge as well as in the Eastern Ghats.

Dowleswaram Barrage was constructed across the stream in Rajahmundry. At Rajahmundry, the Godavari splits into two branches which are known as Vriddha Gautami (Gautami Godavari) and Vasishta Godavari. Again the Gautami branch splits into two branches named Gautami and Nilarevu. Also, the Vasishta splits into two branches namely Vasishta and Vainateya. These four branches which adjoin the Bay of Bengal at different positions, form a delta of the distance of 170 km (110 mi) along the coast of the Bay of Bengal and is called the Konaseema area. This delta along with the delta of the Krishna River is known as the Rice Granary of South India.

Tributaries of Godavari

The biggish branches of the river can be categorized as the left bank tributaries which carry the Purna, Pranhita, Indravati, and Sabari Rivers covering closely 59.7% of the complete catchment region of the basin, and the right bank tributaries Pravara, Manjira, and Manair together chipping in 16.1% of the basin.

Pranhita is the largest tributary covering about 34 of its drainage basin. Though the stream decent flows only for 113 km (70 mi), by virtue of its extended branches Wardha, Wainganga, Penganga, the sub-basin drains all of the Vidharba area as well as the southern slopes of the Satpura Ranges. Indravati is the 2nd largest branch, comprehended as the"lifeline" of the Kalahandi, Nabarangapur of Odisha, and Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Due to their enormous sub-basins, both Indravati and Pranhita are accounted rivers in their own right. Manjira is the longest branch and holds the Nizam Sagar force. Purna is a chief stream in the water-scarce Marathwada area of Maharashtra.

Major Tributaries of Godavari River

Tributary Bank Confluence Location Confluence Elivation Sub-basin Area Length
Paravara Right Pravara Sangam, Nevasa, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra 463 m (1,519 ft) 6,537 km2 (2,524 sq mi) 208 km (129 mi)
Purna Left Jambulbet, Parbhani, Marathwada, Maharashtra 358 m (1,175 ft) 15,579 km2 (6,015 sq mi) 373 km (232 mi)
Manjira Right Kandakurthi, Renjal, Nizamabad, Telangana 332 m (1,089 ft) 30,844 km2 (11,909 sq mi) 724 km (450 mi)
Manair Right Arenda, Manthani, Peddapalli, Telangana 115 m (377 ft) 13,106 km2 (5,060 sq mi) 225 km (140 mi)
Pranhita Left Kaleshwaram, Mahadevpur, Jayashankar Bhupalpally, Telangana 99 m (325 ft) 109,078 km2 (42,115 sq mi) 113 km (70 mi)
Indravati Left Somnoor Sangam, Sironcha, Gadchiroli, Maharashtra 82 m (269 ft) 41,655 km2 (16,083 sq mi) 535 km (332 mi)
Sabari Left Kunawaram, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh 25 m (82 ft) 20,427 km2 (7,887 sq mi) 418 km (260 mi)

Unlike these 7 chief ones, it has numerous smaller but significant branches draining into it. Indravati river floodwaters overflow into the Jouranala which is a portion of the Sabari basin. A barrage is constructed across the Indravati river to divert Indravati water into the Sabari river for improved hydropower production.

Religious Significance of Godavari

Temple near Godavari

The river is holy to Hindus and has several places on its banks, that have been places of pilgrimage for thousands of times. Amongst the huge number-crunching of people who have bathed in her waters as a ritual of purification are stated to have been the divinity Baladeva 5000 years ago and the saint Chaitanya Mahaprabhu 500 years ago. Every twelve years, the Pushkaram show is gripped on the banks of the river.

A legend has it that the savant Gautama resided in the Brahmagiri Hills at Tryambakeshwar with his Mrs. Ahalya. The couple lived the rest of their lives in the then village known as Govuru, now known as Kovvur ("cow") since the British regulation. Ahalya resided in a near place known as Thagami ( currently Thogummi). The savant, as a reason for the practice of annadanam (" giving away food" to the indigent), started cultivating rice crops and other crops. Formerly, the god Ganesha, on the want of the munis, transferred a miraculous cow Maaya-Dhenu, which recalled a normal cow. It entered the savant's residence and started spoiling the rice while he was planning. Since cattle are sacred to Hindus and shall consistently be acted with reference, he put the dharbha grass on the cow. But, to his surprise, it fell dead. Seeing what happed before their eyes, the munis and their women cried out, "We allowed that Gautama-maharishi is a decent man, but he committed bovicide ( payoff of a cow or cattle)!". The savant wished to atone for this grievous sin. Thus, he went to Nashik and observed tapas to Lord Tryambakeshwara (an instantiation of the god Shiva), on the advice of the munis, appealing for atonement and asking Him to make the Ganges flow over the cow. Shiva was pleased with the savant and diverted the Ganges which washed down the cow and gave rise to the Godavari swash in Nashik. The water sluice flowed past Kovvur and eventually intermingled with the Bay of Bengal.

Settelments on the bank of Godavari

In this section we are going to learn about the settlements means important positions placed on the banks of the Godavari river

Wild life sancturaies on Godavari

  1. Bor Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Gautala Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Indravati National Park
  5. Kanger Ghati National Park
  6. Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary
  7. Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary
  8. Kolleru Wildlife Sanctuary
  9. Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary
  10. Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary
  11. Navegaon National Park
  12. Painganga Wildlife Sanctuary
  13. Papikonda Wildlife Sanctuary
  14. Pench National Park
  15. Pocharam Forest & Wildlife Sanctuary
  16. Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary
  17. Tadoba Andhari Tiger Project
  18. Tipeshwar Wildlife Sanctuary
Wild life Sanctuary in Godavari

Waterfalls on Godavari

Duduma Falls is 175 meters (574 ft) high and one of the topmost waterfalls in southern India. It's located on the Sileru River which forms the boundary line between Andhra Pradesh and Odisha states. The following are a few other falls located in the river basin.

  1. Bogatha
  2. Chitrakoot
  3. Kuntala
  4. Pochera
  5. Sahastrakunda
  6. Teerathgarh

Bridges on Godavari

  1. Old Godavari Bridge (also known as Havelock bridge, and named after then Madras governor)
  2. Godavari Bridge (also known as Rail-cum-road bridge and Kovvur-Rajahmundry Bridge)
  3. Godavari Arch Bridge (also known as the New railway bridge)
  4. Forth Bridge (also known as the new road bridge)
Bridges On Godavari River

Dams on Godavari

The main Godavari River up to the convergency with the Pranhita branch is dammed completely to utilize the available water for irrigation. However, its main branches Pranhita, Indravati, and Sabari which join in the lower reaches of the basin, carry three times more water compared to the main Godavari. In 2015, the water surplus in Godavari River is linked to the water deficiency in Krishna River by delegating the Polavaram right bank canal with the help of the Pattiseema lift scheme to compound water availability to the Prakasam Barrage located in Andhra Pradesh. Furthermore, dams are constructed in the Godavari River basin more than in any other river basin of India. The succeeding is some dams located in the river basin.
  1. Gangapur Dam
  2. Jayakwadi Dam
  3. Vishnupuri barrage
  4. Ghatghar Dam
  5. Upper Vaitarna
  6. Sriram Sagar Dam
  7. Sir Arthur Cotton Barrage

Hydro-power Stations In Godavari

Hydroelectricity In Godavari

The Godavari stream is one of the rivers whose water energy is least exploited for generating hydroelectricity. The 600 MW capacity Upper Indravati hydropower station is the biggest hydropower station that diverts Godavari River water to the Mahanadi River basin. The succeeding is the list of hydroelectric power stations excluding small and average installments.

Name of the project Rated Power (in MW)
Upper Indravati 600
Machkund 120
Balimela 510
Upper Sileru 240
Lower Sileru 460
Upper Kolab 320
Pench 160
Ghatghar pumped storage 250
Polavaram 960

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