Brahmaputra River - Map Tributaries Flow Bridges Tunnel

Brahmaputra River


The Brahmaputra, likewise known as the Siang/ Dihang River in Arunachal Pradesh, the Yarlung Tsangpo in Tibet, and Dilao in Assam, is a transboundary river that flows through Tibet, China, India, and Bangladesh. It's the 9th largest stream(river) in the world by discharge and the 15th longest river. 

With its source in the Manasarovar Lake zone, near Mount Kailash, on the northern hand of the Himalayas in Burang County of Tibet where it's comprehended as the Yarlung Tsangpo River, it flows along southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great ravines ( involving the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon) and into Arunachal Pradesh. It flows southwest through the Assam Valley as the Brahmaputra and south through Bangladesh as the Jamuna (not to be misunderstood with the Yamuna of India). In the vast Ganges Delta, it merges with the Ganges, popularly comprehended as the Padma in Bangladesh, and becomes the Meghna and finally empties into the Bay of Bengal. 

Brahmaputra River

Around 3,848 kilometers ( 2,391 miles) long, the Brahmaputra is a major river for irrigation and transportation in the area. The average deepness of the river is 30 m (100 ft) and its max deepness is 135 m (440 ft) (at Sadiya). The stream is prone to catastrophic flooding in the spring when the Himalayan snow melts. The average discharge of the watercourse is about 19,800 m3/s ( 700,000 cu ft/s), and floods reach around 100,000 m3/ s ( 3,500,000 cu ft/ s). It's a classic illustration of a braided river and is largely susceptible to waterway migration and avulsion. It's also one of the limited rivers in the world that exhibits a tidal bore. It's navigable for most of its distance. 

The river drains the Himalayas east of the Indo-Nepal borderline, a south-medial portion of the Tibetan plateau above the Ganga river basin, a south-eastern destiny of Tibet, the Patkai-Bum mountains, the northern slopes of the Meghalaya mountains, the Assam plains, and the northern destiny of Bangladesh. The basin, particularly south of Tibet, is defined by high levels of rainstorms. Kangchenjunga ( 8,586 meters) is the only mount above 8,000 meters and hence is the topmost point within the Brahmaputra basin. 

The Brahmaputra's upper course was long unknown, and its identity with the Yarlung Tsangpo existed only established by investigation in 1884 – 86. The river is frequently called the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra river. 

The lower reaches are holy to Hindus. While most rivers on the Indian subcontinent own womanish names, this river has an elegant male title. The Brahmaputra means" son of Brahma" in Sanskrit. 

Brahmaputra River Map

Brahmaputra River

Tributaries of Brahmaputra


Tista River

Tista or Teesta is one of the significant rivers in northeast India. The stream is located in the land of Sikkim in India. It's said to be the lifeline of Sikkim, rolling through closely the whole extent of the state. On its itinerary, the river forms the prosperous green moderate, and humid river basins of the Himalayan mount ranges. The shade of the waters of this river is emerald green and the river creates the borderline between West Bengal and Sikkim prior to meeting the Brahmaputra in the form of a branch in Bangladesh. The overall distance of the Tista River is 315 km (196 miles). A number of Dams have been propounded on the river. The Tista River has its origin in the Cholomo Lake in northern Sikkim. 


Subansiri River

The Subansiri River is the biggest branch of the Upper Brahmaputra. Correspondingly called the Gold River; Subansiri is the lifeline for a substantial number of people abiding in Dhemaji and Lakhimpur districts and a broad variousness of biodiversity, which includes the imperiled Gangetic dolphin. The stream moves down through the green tropical rainforest in Arunachal Pradesh. River rafting is a popularized experience sport on the Subansiri River. 


Tsang po River

Tsang-Po River is likely known as the Yarlung Zango River. It's one of the significant branches of the Brahmaputra River. The stream has its source in South Tibet. After arising from the South Tibet basin, the river traverses Arunachal Pradesh and the title of the river in this state is Dihang. Kayaking is a popularized experience sports activity on the waters of this river. 


Jamuna River

The Jamuna is one of the crucial branches of the Brahmaputra River. It's also one of the three significant rivers in Bangladesh. The stream meets the Padma River in Bangladesh. After associating with the Meghna River, the river pours into the Bay of Bengal as the Meghna River. 

Brahmaputra River System

The Flow of Brahmaputra


The upper reaches of the Brahmaputra River comprehended as the Yarlung Tsangpo from the Tibetan mother tongue, originates on the Angsi Glacier, near Mount Kailash, located on the northern hand of the Himalayas in Burang County of Tibet. The origin of the river was before thought to exist on the Chemayungdung glacier, which covers the slopes of the Himalayas about 97 km (60 mi) southeast of Lake Manasarovar in southwestern Tibet. 

The river is 3,969 kilometers ( 2,466 miles) long, and its drainage region is 7,12,035 km2 (2,74,918 sq miles) checking to the new findings, while previous documents displayed its distance differed from 2,916 kilometers ( 1,812 miles) to 3,364 kilometers ( 2,090 miles) and its drainage region between 520,000 and1.73 million km2. 

From its origin, the river runs for close 1,100 km (680 miles) in a commonly easterly direction between the main range of the Himalayas to the south and the Kailas Range to the north. 

In Tibet, the Tsangpo receives a number of branches. The most significant left-bank branches are the Raka Zangbo (Raka Tsangpo), which joins the river west of Xigazê (Shigatse), and the Lhasa (Kyi), which flows past the Tibetan capital of Lhasa and joins the Tsangpo at Qüxü. The Nyang River joins the Tsangpo from the north at Zela (Tsela Dzong). On the right bank, another river named the Nyang Qu (Nyang Chu) meets the Tsangpo at Xigazê. 

After passing Pi (Pe) in Tibet, the stream turns suddenly to the north and northeast and cuts a course through a race of great slim gorges between the mountainous massifs of Gyala Peri and Namcha Barwa in a series of rapids and falls. Thereafter, the river turns south and southwest and flows through a deep gorge (the"Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon") across the eastern extremity of the Himalayas with canyon walls that draw out upward for 5,000 meters ( 16,000 feet) and more on each side. During that expansion, the river crosses the China-India borderline of actual control to access northern Arunachal Pradesh, where it's comprehended as the Dihang (or Siang) River and turns more southerly. 

Arunachal Pradesh

The Yarlung Tsangpo leaves the proportion of Tibet to access the Indian land of Arunachal Pradesh, where the river is known as Siang. It makes a very rapid dip from its original height in Tibet and ultimately appears in the plains, where it's known as Dihang. It flows for around 35 km (22 mi) southward after which, it's joined by the Dibang River and the Lohit River at the head of the Assam Valley. under the Lohit, the stream is known as Brahmaputra and Doima ( mother of water) and Burlung-Buthur by native Bodo tribals, it also enters the state of Assam, and becomes very broad — as wide as 20 km (12 mi) in the land of Assam.


The Dihang, curling out of the mounts, turns towards the southeast and descends into an equatorial-lying basin as it enters northeastern Assam state. exactly west of the city of Sadiya, the river again turns to the southwest and is joined by two mount streams, the Lohit, and the Dibang. beneath that convergence, about km (900 mi) from the Bay of Bengal, the river becomes known conventionally as the Brahmaputra ("Son of Brahma"). In Assam, the stream is mighty, even in the dry season, and during the rainfalls, its banks are more than 8 km (5.0 mi) apart. As the stream follows its braided 700 km (430 mi) course through the valley, it receives several quickly rolling Himalayan streams, involving the Subansiri, Kameng, Bhareli, Dhansiri, Manas, Champamati, Saralbhanga, and Sankosh Rivers. The main branches from the mountains and from the plateau to the south are the Burhi Dihing, the Disang, the Dikhu, and the Kopili. 

Between Dibrugarh and Lakhimpur Districts, the river divides into two aqueducts — the northern Kherkutia aqueduct and the southern Brahmaputra aqueduct. The two aqueducts join again around 100 km (62 mi) downstream, forming the Majuli island, which is the largest river island in humankind. At Guwahati, near the ancient pilgrimage center of Hajo, the Brahmaputra cuts through the rocks of the Shillong Plateau and is at its narrowest at 1 km ( yd) bank-to-bank. The terrain of this area made it logistically ideal for the Battle of Saraighat, the military battle between the Mughal Empire and the Ahom Kingdom in March 1671. The earliest combined railroad/ roadway bridge across the Brahmaputra was constructed at Saraighat. It was opened to traffic in April 1962. 

The terrain of the Brahmaputra floodplains in Assam has been described as the Brahmaputra Valleysemi-evergreen forests ecoregion. 


In Bangladesh, the Brahmaputra is joined by the Teesta River (or Tista), one of its largest branches. beneath the Tista, the Brahmaputra splits into two distributary branches. The western branch, which contains the majority of the river's inflow, continues due south as the Jamuna (Jomuna) to combine with the lower Ganga, known as the Padma River (Pôdda). The eastern branch, formerly the larger, but now much lower, is called the lower or Old Brahmaputra (Brommoputro). It curves southeast to join the Meghna River near Dhaka. The Padma and Meghna meet near Chandpur and flow out into the Bay of Bengal. This ultimate part of the river is known as Meghna. 

The Brahmaputra enters the plains of Bangladesh after rolling south around the Garo Hills below Dhuburi, India. After rolling past Chilmari, Bangladesh, it's joined on its right bank by the Tista River and also follows a 240 km (150-mi) course due south as the Jamuna River. (South of Gaibanda, the Old Brahmaputra leaves the left bank of the mainstream and flows past Jamalpur and Mymensingh to join the Meghna River at Bhairab Bazar.) Before its convergence with the Ganga, the Jamuna receives the combined waters of the Baral, Atrai, and Hurasagar Rivers on its right bank and becomes the point of departure of the large Dhaleswari River on its left bank. A branch of the Dhaleswari, the Buriganga ("Old Ganga"), flows past Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, and joins the Meghna River above Munshiganj. 

The Jamuna joins with the Ganga north of Goalundo Ghat, below which, as the Padma, their associated waters roll to the southeast for a length of about 120 km (75 mi). After several smaller aqueducts branch off to feed the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta to the south, the main body of the Padma reaches its convergence with the Meghna River near Chandpur and also enters the Bay of Bengal through the Meghna estuary and lesser aqueducts rolling through the delta. The growth of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta is conquered by tidal operations. 
The Ganga Delta, fed by the waters of numerous rivers, involving the Ganga and Brahmaputra, is square kilometers ( sq mi), one of the largest river deltas in humankind. 

Development In Brahmaputra

In India

Brahmaputra River

Bridges On Brahmaputra

From east to the west till Parshuram Kund, then from southwest to northeast from Parshuram Kund to Patum, finally from east to southwest from Parshuram Kund to Burhidhing:

Bridges Already Made
  1. Sankosh Bridge near Gossaigaon on a tributary of the Brahmaputra on the West Bengal-Assam border. 675 meters.
  2. Sankosh Railway Bridge near Gossaigaon on a tributary of the Brahmaputra on the West Bengal-Assam border. 675 meters.
  3. Chilarai Bridge near Rupsi Airport on a tributary of Brahmaputra. 625 meters.
  4. Golakganj Bridge just south of Chilarai Bridge near Rupsi Airport on a tributary of Brahmaputra. 575 meters.
  5. Old Saraighat Bridge, road and rail bridge near Guwahati in Assam. 1.483 km.
  6. New Saraighat Bridge, road bridge near Guwahati in Assam. 1.521 km.
  7. Kolia Bhomora Setu, road bridge near Tezpur in Assam, 3.015 km.
  8. Naranarayan Setu, road and rail bridge near Bongaigaon in Assam, 2.284 km.
  9. Bogibeel Bridge, road and rail bridge near Dibrugarh in Assam, 4.94 km.
  10. Dhola–Sadiya Bridge (Bhupen Hazarika Bridge), road bridge on Brahmaputra's River Lohit tributary near Chongkham in Assam, 9.15 km long.
  11. Dibang River Bridge, road bridge on Brahmaputra's River Lohit tributary in Arunachal Pradesh, 6.2 km long connects Bomjir and Malek.
  12. Parshuram Kund road bridge on Brahmaputra's Lohit river tributary in Arunachal Pradesh, 2.6 km long.
  13. Shilluk-Dambuk Bridge, road bridge in Arunachal Pradesh on Brahmaputra's Lohit river tributary between Silluk-Dambuk. 4.4 km long.
  14. Ranaghat Bridge on the Brahmaputra at Pasighat in Arunachal Pradesh. 3.3 km long.
  15. Patum Bridge on Brahmaputra's tributary near Aalo (formerly Along) in Arunachal Pradesh. 1.681 km.
  16. Wakro Bridge, road bridge on Brahmaputra's tributary Lohit river in Arunachal Pradesh, 1.444 km.
  17. Nao-Dihing Bridge road bridge on Brahmaputra's tributary Dihing river near Margherita, Assam, and Ledo in Assam. 2.052 km long.
  18. NEEPCO Bridge road bridge on Brahmaputra's tributary Buriding river near Jeypore, Assam. 1.936 km long.
  19. Naharkatiya Bridge road bridge on Brahmaputra's tributary Dihing river near Burhidhing Railway Bridge road bridge on Brahmaputra's tributary Dihing river near Khowang in Assam. 916 meters long.
  20. PM Modi Launches Mahabahu-Brahmaputra Initiative Ahead Of Polls In Assam.
Bridges going to be constructed
Approved and under-construction: 5 new bridges, including 1 to replace an existing bridge and 4 bridged to provide greenfield connectivity, were announced in December 2017 by India's Minister for MoRTH, Nitin Gadkari. From east to west:

1. Dhubri-Phulbari bridge, road and rail bridge in Assam, near tri-junction of east Meghalaya, west Assam, and north Bangladesh 21.03 km

2. Bhomoraguri-Tezpur Bridge (a few meters parallel to the existing Kalia Bhomara Bridge at Bhomoraguri suburb of Tezpur town in Assam, 3.249 km was partially complete in 2021.

3. Numaligarh-Gohpur Bridge under-water tunnel between Gohpur (Biswanath district) and Numaligarh (Golaghat district in Assam 4.41 km

4. Jorhat-Tezpur twin bridges:

(a). Jorhat-Nematighat bridge at Jorhat on the Brahmaputra in Assam and combined with Louit Khablu Bridge on a tributary it will connect Jorhat-Tezpur, 4.0 km,

(b). Louit Khablu Bridge on a tributary of Brahmaputra and combined with Jorhat-Nematighat bridge it will connect Jorhat-Tezpur cities, 5.29 km long. Louit Khablu is a village panchayat in Lakhimpur district with Gormur Bali Gaon, Gormur P.G.R, Khabuli Morotpur, Ghesek, Bordubi Maluwal, and No.1 Mudoibil under its Pincode 787052

5. Disangmukh-Tekeliphuta Bridge between Disangmukh-Tekeliphuta near Sivasagar in Assam 2.8 km

Proposed and awaiting approval by MoRTH: These will reduce the risk of blockades, logistics cost, travel time, boost the economy, and enable India's Look-East and Neighbourhood-first connectivity.

1. Barpeta-Nitarkhola Reserve bridge: halfway between Narnarayan Setu (Jogighopa) and Guwahati bridge, will reduce 140 km distance by 100 km to 40 km, vital for east Assam connectivity to south Assam, Meghalaya, Bangladesh, and Tripura.

2. Kharupetia-Bhuragaon bridge: near Morigaon halfway between Guwahati and Tezpur, will reduce 180 km distance by 140 km to 40 km, vital for connecting Tawang and the eastern end of East-West Arunachal Industrial Corridor Highway to south Assam, Tripura, Bangladesh, Manipur, Mizoram, and Myanmar (Kaladan Project). It will foster the construction of the following highway stretches Dhupdhara-Diplokgittim-Nograthaw-Nogthymmai-Rongieng, Nogthymmai-Riangdo, Nogstoin-Tilagaon, Tilagaon-Mawkyrwat-Maooranglang (with Mawkyrwat-Laitjynrai and Mawkyrwat-Mawthawiang spours), all of which are vital for Meghalaya-Bangladesh trade.

3. Sadiya Sille-Oyan bridge, 40 km long road including bridges, from Sille-Oyan-Chilling Madhupur-Sadiaover Brahmputra river will existing 180 km Sille-Oyan to Sadiya distance by 140 km and existing 150 km Pasighat-Sadiya distance by 110 km. It is vital for National Waterway 2 and East-West Arunachal Industrial Corridor Highway.

Under-River Tunnel

Numaligarh-Gohpur under-river tunnel. The 15.6 km long tunnel, 22 22 metres below the river bed, will have 18 km approach roads to connect the NH-52 and Numaligarh on NH-37. This total ~33 km route will boot economy and strategic defense connectivity, protect Kaziranga National Park by diverting traffic away from the congested 2-lane highway through the park, shorten 223 km 6 hour long Gohpur-Numaligarh route to 35 km and 30 minutes, This twin tube tunnel, with an under road water drainage and overhead ventilation fans, will have inter-connectivity the twin tubs for evacuation. It will be equipped with censors, CCTV, automated safety and traffic control systems. It will cost Rs 12,807 crore (US$1.7 billion in 2021).

In Bangladesh

  • Present bridges in Bangladesh

  1. Bangabandhu Bridge (formerly Jamuna Bridge), road and rail bridge.
  2. Padma Bridge, road and rail bridge on Padma River tributary of Brahmaputra.
  3. Lalon Shah Bridge road bridge on Padma River tributary of Brahmaputra.
  4. Hardinge Bridge, rail bridge on Padma River next to Lalon Shah Bridge.

  • Planned bridges in Bangladesh
  1. Gaibandha-Bakshiganj Bridge, road and rail bridge to connect existing rail and road heads at Gaibandha-Bakshiganj on either side of the river.
  2. Siraiganj-Tangail Bridge, road and rail bridge to connect existing rail and road heads at Siraiganj-Tangail on either side of the river.

Brahmaputra National Waterway 2

National Waterway 2 (NW2) is an 891 km long Sadiya-Dhubri stretch of Brahmaputra River in Assam.
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